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TkeyNet: release date, a brief analysis of the system, future plans

TkeyNet: release date, a brief analysis of the system, future plans
During the development of the project, we published 3 documents about the technology that we are developing and preparing for the market. Some decisions were changed, but the main idea and goal remained the same — effective financial management.
Since the ICO boom, several years have passed, blockchain and cryptocurrencies have become synonymous and are perceived only as a means of earning money and the obvious advantages of using the technology itself in combination with others are of little interest to anyone. A user, business representatives, or some government officials associate the word “blockchain” directly with cryptocurrency or Bitcoin, without thinking about using systems built on a distributed registry in the current reality.
As we mentioned above, during the development of the project, several documents were published in which we announced our technology and clearly said that we are mixing modern concepts and approaching the market from an economic and scientific point of view, borrowing the best from Bitcoin, Ethereum, DASH, and other alternative currencies.
It is important to note that the concept of Bitcoin or Monero will be different from the concept of TkeyNet. These are other areas and practical application that some market participants may perceive as similar, but this is far from the case.
“When you innovate, you must be prepared for a prolonged lack of understanding of your actions on the part of your environment. You can do something you believe in, but for a long time, people who only wish you well may criticize your endeavors. When faced with such criticism, ask yourself — Are they right? And if you answer this question positively, accept the criticism and adjust your work accordingly. If the answer is negative, if you are firmly convinced of your rightness, you should prepare for a long defense, defending your positions. This approach is a key component of innovation.” ©
The idea of Bitcoin is beautiful, even if it has not yet been accepted by society as planned, but at least the idea of using Bitcoin as a means of accumulating value and storing savings has a place to be. Bitcoin actively strives for a high price mark and dominates the market by more than 50%, and this is a great result. Bitcoin set the necessary vector for many developers around the world, people were able to review the systems used and make their own decisions based on the Bitcoin core, for example, DASH or Ethereum, and users, in turn, learned about such a phenomenon as cryptocurrency.
In General, what was this introduction for? That TKEY should be considered as a universal asset, without defining it as a cryptocurrency. The question may immediately arise, why is this so? It doesn’t have explicit currency properties? Bitcoin also does not have the properties of cash but is called a cryptocurrency, and the types of applications of the peer-to-peer payment system Bitcoin and TkeyNet can differ significantly from each other.
The purpose of this publication is to tell you about the new features of TkeyNet, when the official transition to the new Protocol will take place, and why TKEY is a universal asset that simply needs liquidity? In General, we will talk about the clear advantages of switching to new technologies that we have been striving for so long and about your benefits of using them accordingly.

What is TkeyNet, and what are its advantages?

TkeyNet is an infrastructure that combines various solutions for users, businesses, and the public sector. Secure corporate networks, payment processors, liquidity, cross-border payments, trading tools, information security, instant exchanges, investment tools. One platform — millions of opportunities.
When creating TkeyNet, we immediately turned to e-cash protocols, concepts of electronic currencies, considered the movements of Bank international transfers, and also drew attention to the obvious complexity of these systems. Therefore, to build a high-quality architecture of TkeyNet, the team took as a basis — blockchain technology, cryptography, payment and banking system, electronic cash protocols, exchanges, stock markets, DHT, and other p2p networks.
Now more than ever, businesses, users, and most financial market participants need reliable and modern systems that will meet the needs of the market.
For example, a user wants to quickly send funds to another user, and they do not want to think about how the blockchain works and who the “miners” are and what they do for the network. Any of us want to open the app and click a few buttons on the screen to pay for a particular service or send money to relatives abroad and the most importantly, know that the funds will reach you quickly and with a minimum Commission. Or let’s say you came to India, you have some funds in Bitcoin, but you would like to pay for your purchases in the local currency — the Indian rupee without extra conversions.
You are the owner of a payment system or Bank, and you want to receive % for conversion transactions, or banks want to create their consortium for cross-border payments. Either you are an entrepreneur and plan to open an exchange or trading platform for trading various assets, not necessarily digital, but, for example, gold and diamonds, or you are a young and purposeful startup team and want to quickly launch your Digital Bank, or you do not want to do business, and you have several million euros or dollars, you want to get % of their use.
TkeyNet makes these features available to all participants.
As we can see with you, there are quite a lot of use cases, and it may seem that TKEY is again torn into 100500 different directions, but this is far from the case. Here, a specific and clear direction is Finance and its movement.

How TkeyNet works

Remember, we said that — “to develop the platform on a global level, it is necessary to reach a consensus between government regulation, business, and society. We understand that it is impossible to achieve 100% of this, but it is possible to create favorable conditions favorable to all parties.”
How will the system work? All participants are connected to the system using TkeyNet technology that allows the financial gateway to control their transactions with increased speed, transparency, and efficiency. Independent verification servers constantly compare their transaction records. To hack the system, you will need to get access to all the devices that are logged in.
TkeyNet solutions offer a cryptographically secure, end-to-end payment flow with the immutability of transactions and redundancy of information contained in them. It is developed to meet each financial gateway’s risk, privacy, and compliance requirements. Since the software is developed to be easily integrated into the existing financial infrastructure, it minimizes any integration costs and failures, and also meets international standards (ISO, etc.).

TkeyNet can be a neutral utility for financial institutions and systems

A gateway is an organization that allows users to invest money and take money out of a pool of liquidity. The gateway accepts currency deposits from users and issues balances to the TkeyNet blockchain.
TkeyNet Protocol provides a single source of truth for counterparties while maintaining the confidentiality of payment data of Bank clients.
TKEY is a universal bill (digital obligation) in the distributed registry TkeyNet.
Gateways install specialized software for interacting with the distributed registry and other system participants. Users, brokers, and other participants interact with the system via mobile or web interfaces. Gateways act as a link between the distributed registry, brokers, users, and other services that allow you to make quick transactions.
The participants of the system make payments between themselves by using cryptographically signed transactions denominated in digital obligation. This type of transaction uses an internal registry.
In the case of working with Fiat currency and other assets, such as securities and precious metals, the registry records the amounts owed with assets presented as debt obligations. All accounts and transactions are cryptographically secure and verified algorithmically. Payments can only be authorized by the account holder, and all payments are processed automatically, without any third parties or intermediaries. The TkeyNet Protocol checks balances and accounts inside the system for transferring payments and sends payment notifications with minimal delay, which ensures fast calculations in the system.
For more specialized solutions can be created by the Central gateways and the gateways just. A Central gateway is an organization that allows users to invest money and take money out of the liquidity pool. Gateway is an organization that interacts with the Central gateway. Accepts and exchanges digital liabilities for other assets, such as securities.
TkeyNet globally reduces the number of different expenses and automates operational tasks, simplifies and reduces the cost of conducting monetary transactions, and improves traditional financial services.
We understand that it is not easy to tell all the principles of the TkeyNet system in a single publication, especially one that deals with neither one nor two issues. Therefore, you should consider this material as a basis, a base that will help you learn the information that is related to the TkeyNet Protocol most easily after the release of TkeyNet.
Moving a little away from corporate solutions, we suggest you recall some theses from our roadmap, which was published on the official website in the period from September 2018 to November 2019:
“The introduction of the exchanger in web wallets and the app will allow users to send money in one currency, and the recipient will receive it in another currency. For example, a user can buy Tkeycoin for dollars and exchange it for euros or Bitcoin or Ethereum at the current exchange rate.This functionality provides full control of funds through a single trusted and most secure source. Users no longer need to create multiple accounts on third-party resources to make an exchange into a particular currency.With the development of the network, it is possible to implement a multi-exchange that works on the principle of a payment bridge, when the user sends funds to Tkeycoin, and the recipient chooses the receiving currency, let’s say Litecoin, the funds are automatically converted” ©
We wrote above that TKEY can in principle be used as a universal asset, acting as a digital obligation or an asset as an exchange. By the way, references to this were also published on the official website — In simple words, using one of our web interfaces, you can access TKEYRUB or TKEYUSD or any other asset, such as TKEYGOLD.
TKEYUSD, TKEYRUB, and TKEYGOLD are symbols and can be called differently in the system, for example, TKUSD or GOLDTKEY, so now they should be considered as an example.

Why is TKEY a universal asset?

As before, you can easily and quickly send TKEY to any member of the network and TKEY will have liquidity on the exchange also, TKEY allows you to fast exchange for euros, dollars, or other currencies.
For the interface, the applications will display functions of digital assets 1:1 to a particular currency, for example, TKEY to RUB, TKey to EUR, or TKEY to Dirhams or TKEY to the pound and vice versa, respectively.
Therefore, as we said above, TKEY should not be regarded as a cryptocurrency, it is a universal unit inside the system TkeyNet, which may refer to transaction information as exchanges of obligations between banks and transaction TKEY -> TKEY between users, or to carry information about the exchange on the exchange or the exchange of digital assets or gold variations quite a lot, for most of the functions we describe in the release day TkeyNet.

What are the advantages for companies and developers?

First of all, we strive to open the doors for all platform participants. Only through synergy and cooperation can we accelerate the pace of development of the entire system and the introduction of new technologies in the market.
The platform will open doors for developers, who in turn can create technological solutions based on TkeyNet. A working environment will be created, and integration with the TkeyNet platform will be as easy as with the documented SDK or plug-ins. In the course of development, API documentation and ready-made SDKs for developers will be published.
This will make it easy to use and implement TkeyNet technology in various types of applications, for example, you want to create fast exchanges, we provide you with a framework, back-end, and API, and you create a front-end and launch your service, get your Commission, and are an independent project in the market. An important point is that integration into the existing infrastructure takes place while maintaining the decentralization of the TkeyNet system so that all its internal and external operations remain confidential and verified at the same time.

What are the advantages for users?

This means getting a universal tool for working with financial markets and easily converting an asset into any other asset: euro, dollars, or gold.
Also, TKEY owners should clearly understand that the more the system develops and there are more participants, namely the corporate segment, projects, and partners, the company will be more stable and thus the project assets will grow stronger.
The popularity of the platform and trust in it directly affects the price of assets, these are the key points of growth signs, the wider and more influential the spread of the company in various areas, the higher its performance in the market.

When will the long-awaited transition to TkeyNet take place?

What changes will be made to the products?

As you understand, everything will change, and this is for the better. At a minimum, products will become faster, lighter, safer, and more versatile.
Changes and new releases will be released as soon as they are ready. In TkeySpace, the TKEY libraries will be rewritten under TkeyNet. A web version of the wallet will appear, and eventually, an application with an exchange interface will be released for quick trading and exchange of various assets, not limited to digital ones. The Tkey Messenger will be adapted for TkeyNet and will be released for previously announced platforms: iOS, Android, Linux, macOS, Windows immediately with the ability to translate directly in the messenger. We will tell you about the messenger architecture on the release day.
All changes and releases will be published and announced after the release of TkeyNet.

What is radically new in TkeyNet?

There will be funds, the Protocol will become much more universal, as well as the TKEY itself. The Protocol will also exclude the possibility of attacks that could have been in Core 1.0, also, the principles of the platform will change. We will publish all technical specifications on the day of release.

Timeline for switching to TkeyNet

The transition to TkeyNet will not take place until August 2020. We will release news and instructions for switching to TkeyNet, so we recommend that you subscribe to the newsletter immediately:

Listing on crypto exchanges

The liquidity of the TKEY asset is urgently needed for the development of the entire TkeyNet system, so the company will provide trading platforms for TKey trading and exchange.


The introduction of technologies using digital currencies will create the fastest transition of users and the corporate market to a new level.
FinTech direction makes it possible to manage finances in the most efficient and secure way, without violating the law. This system simplifies, reduces the cost of conducting monetary transactions, and actually improves traditional financial services.
The solution is interesting to everyone who works with money and is used to getting maximum efficiency from it: business, investors, traders, users of banking solutions, the corporate segment, etc. When using the system, large businesses get solutions for interacting with customers online, without using specialized points.
We, in turn, are open to various offers and cooperation on flexible terms. If you have any suggestions or interesting concepts, please contact us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

It's called "Bitcoin Cash". The term "Bcash" is a social attack run by r/bitcoin. Not joking. Here is the full explanation, with proof.

"Bitcoin Cash" is the proper name. Bitcoin Cash is BCC or BCH.

What is this "Bcash" thing that is being pushed on bitcoin?

The term "bcash" originated in the Bitcoin sub, alongside calling Bitcoin Cash an "altcoin", a "failure" and other derogatory names.
A few users from bitcoin then registered a subreddit "/bcash", and /bitcoin mods pushed that sub-reddit in their stickied post, here.   (Archived here)
No one involved with or actually interacting with Bitcoin Cash calls it "bcash".
None of the clients use the incorrect name "bcash". Yet, bitcoin pushes this name heavily. This is why it's an obvious attack vector.
The intention of that name is to take the word "bitcoin" out of it.
The Bcash sub's entire point is to make the insulting name "mainstream". That's why you see people here against it.


The mods of bcash are people who were against Bitcoin Cash prior to the creation of that sub. It's all in the reddit history of the mods of that sub.
If you're in doubt, here is info on the creator (qubeqube) of the sub "bcash":
Just because their FAQ sounds legit doesn't mean the whole sub's creation isn't a front.
By promoting that sub's use, and convincing those that don't know about it, is effectively pushing their agenda to remove the word "Bitcoin" from "Bitcoin Cash".


TL;DR: The name "bcash" is yet another social attack from bitcoin, pushed by bitcoin mods themselves.

A message to bitcoin moderators and bcash scammers:
Get used to it.
submitted by BitcoinIsTehFuture to btc [link] [comments]

What does the portfolio look like from someone who mined his first bitcoins in 2011. Part 3

This is the third part of my investment "blog". You can find parts one and two here:
Bitcoin is still my largest holding; people often ask me why, claiming its "old", "first gen" and there are so many supposedly superior alternatives. I dont agree with any of that. First, let me address what bitcoin has going for it. Now that segwit is being adopted and exchanges are finally batching transactions, we've seen the mempool drain and fees and confirmation times are as low as they have been in many years. Bitcoin core devs were right: we didnt need a barely tested, risky, contentious and backwards incompatible hardfork to urgently increase the blocksize; instead segwit, a backwards compatible softfork allowing up to 4MB blocks, has given us enough headroom for now, while at the same time increasing block efficiency. One day, we will need to hardfork, but that had better be a well planned, well tested fork supported by a very broad consensus (and its probably a good opportunity to fix some other lingering issues with bitcoin besides just the blocksize).
Segwit not only (temporarily, lets be honest) fixed the tx fee issue; more importantly, it also opened the door to layer 2 solutions. Lightening network, although not quite ready yet, is already being deployed on the main net, enabling instant and feeless transactions, without counterparty risk, without undermining the security or decentralisation of the blockchain itself. But there is also Rootstock RSK and a few other similar layer 2 solutions that are about to go live on the main net, which will (finally) bring ethereum style smart contracts and incredible scaling to bitcoin. Again, without undermining the base layer.
To me, this is the way forward. A "simple", ultra secure, no compromise, battle hardened base layer. Even if it has limited capacity and therefore relatively slow or expensive. But on top of that, you build innovative, even if comparatively risky and unproven layer 2 solutions to cope with scaling, latency and additional functionality. If they fail, at least they can fail without compromising bitcoin itself.
Contrast that with ethereum, by far the most credible challenger to bitcoin; ethereum has supported smart contract functionality since its inception, and certainly proved the merits of that concept, but it is facing similar fundamental scaling problems as bitcoin. Its solution is to replace basically everything. Change the consensus algorithm to PoS and introduce blockchain sharding. These changes will affect everyone and everything on the ethereum blockchain. Its a safe assumption this will lead to another hardfork and the birth of another "ethereum classic". PoS inevitably compromises decentralisation and potentially affects security. Sharding sounds promising, and I am absolutely looking forward to this, but sharding is extremely complicated, therefore, it could fail, could open doors to new attack vectors, and it remains to be seen how effective it is as scaling solution, as intra-shard communication is likely to be slow. I dont question the skill of the ethereum dev team, but fundamentally, Im not convinced ethereum is using the right approach trying to do everything in the base layer. Its like embedding HTTPS, javascript and audio/video codecs in to the TCPIP protocol itself, rather than using a more flexible layered protocol stack based upon a relatively simple, robust routing protocol.
As for the other contenders; I do take Cardano and EOS seriously. But both are so early in their development, its difficult to judge and the valuations seem crazy bets at this point. I continue to disregard Neo and other similar database tokens. I dont care how high their price goes, one day, people will wake up to the reality that blockchains where invented specifically to have no central authority; not because of philosophical or political reasons, but because thats the only way to have no central points of failure. Neo, just like database solutions we've had for decades, is riddled with central points of failure, which will lead to downtime, greatly reduce access, therefore innovation and will one day lead to corruption, manipulation, theft or government control. dAPPS may chose to deploy on Neo's blockchain because of its claimed scalability (or simply because they are paid to do so), but when more secure, open blockchains offer similar scalability without Neo's risks and central points of failure, dAPPS will move away from neo, or they will be obsoleted.
Anyway, this was supposed to by about my portfolio, so lets go back to that. Last month, I said I thought the altcoin market was overheating and I took profits to increase my cash position. It might be easy to say "I told you so", but the reality is that I still have no crystal ball, I got lucky with the timing and didnt sell nearly enough to prevent my portfolio from going quite red. But the extra cash did allow me to buy the dip; I bought symbolic amounts when we hit below $9K/ BTC and more significant amounts at $6500. I was expecting/hoping/fearing we would drop to $5K and was ready to invest significantly at that point, but it has rebounded since. So here is what I have now:
Fiat: 36%. This went up to over 50% during the worst of the crash, but like I said, Ive been buying in again.
Bitcoin: 28%. For all the reasons explained above. I now have substantially more BTC than before the crash, and Im quite happy with that :).
Ethereum: 9%. Because Casper may work. And LN/RST may fail. And Vitalik.
Walton: 8%. I sold half my WTC pretty much at the peak. I got lucky. Ive been buying in again a little recently, as I still think this is a solid bet, even if it has been performing worse than I had expected.
Ambrosus: 4%. Ouch. This one hurt. It was a low cap, high potential bet. I still think its a good bet, but I managed to buy this pretty much at its peak, and lost 50% on it. Im not brave enough to buy more at this point, I will need to see some more progress first.
qtum: 2%. Qtum has been performing quite well, and I bought a little more recently. I forgot to mention it above, but qtum probably is the most credible challenger to ethereum at this moment.
Origin Trail: 1.5%. Another supply chain token I purchased near the top, and another 50% loss for now. But its still a small cap, and its not yet trading on any major exchange, so Im definitely holding.
Stellar: 1.5%. I bought this with fiat when bitcoin was near its bottom, as I expected quite a bit of hype for this when the market would rebound. Fundamentally, I do think stellar is a useful product for IOU messaging that may find wide adoption and make plenty of headlines. The value of the token however, is similarly misunderstood and overrated as XRP. I dont plan on holding this long term.
iEXEC RLC: 1.3%. No changes, other than the price has gone down quite a bit. Still holding for all the same reasons I bought it.
Nuls: 1.2% This is a new, small bet. They havent proven much yet, but if they can deliver on their promises, it does look good.
Monero: 1.2%. Once again, just because i had it on kraken, I sold all my monero when I wanted to increase my fiat positions last month. No hate on monero from me though. Ive been buying in again at almost 50% discount, and intend to buy more. Bulletproofs are hardly a silver bullet to solve monero's scaling issues, but its a step in the right direction.
Bytom: 1% I bought this with spare change during the chinese crack down last year, and while its a small position, it has done pretty well and I see no reason to sell it.
Nebulas: 0.7% Not going to lie. I dont understand the usecase for nebulas or the idea of a blockchain search engines. I suspect its more hype than solving a real problem, but if hype can make me money, I dont always object, so I bought some.
SophiaTX: 0.7% Another ouch. Im down almost 60% on this token. I still think it has potential and solves a real world problem (ERP integration). Not sure what it will take for this to get some visibility though. I guess ERP isnt very sexy among young crypto investors.
Wepower 0.7%. I only just bought this. When the ICO was announced, I was tempted to join. For a variety of reasons, I decided against it, but now that the token is trading below ICO prices on idex, I thought I might as well buy a few.
For the rest, Im maintaining tiny positions in Blockpool, aeternity (which I had sold previously, but decided it was worth buying in again), Enigma, OAX, Zcash, Mywish, Blockarray and cargox. Oh, and I still have some nano. And no, I still dont believe nano will actually work when attacked, but I do expect it to recover from the bitgrail hack. Hopefully enough for me to break even.
submitted by Vertigo722 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

The Nexus FAQ - part 1

Full formatted version:

Nexus 101:

  1. What is Nexus?
  2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
  3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
  4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
  5. What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
  6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?

The Nexus Currency:

  1. How can I get Nexus?
  2. How much does a transaction cost?
  3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
  4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
  5. Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
  6. What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
  7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
  8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?

Types of Mining or Minting:

  1. Can I mine Nexus?
  2. How do I mine Nexus?
  3. How do I stake Nexus?
  4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?

Nexus 101:

1. What is Nexus (NXS)?
Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world.
For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels.
Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it?
To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0.
Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states.
Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously.
Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly.
One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys:
Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF
Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz
Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen.
Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code.
This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security.
The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash.
To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
5. What is the Unified Time protocol?
All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution.
The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected.
It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population.
Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.

The Nexus Currency (NXS):

1. How can I get Nexus?
There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below.
Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
2. How much does a transaction cost?
Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly.
When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy.
The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks.
The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites.
When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust.
Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence?
After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events.
When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees.
Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet?
Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency.
The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet.
Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup.
Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2.
Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps:
Step 1 - Download your wallet from Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system.
Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB.
On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location.
Using Windows, follow these steps:
On macOS, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to and click the Downloads menu.
Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2.
Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet.
Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions.
Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it.
You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.

Types of Mining or Minting:

1.Can I mine Nexus?
Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting:
Prime Mining Channel
This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU.
Hashing Channel
This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU.
Proof of Stake (nPoS)
Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
2. How do I mine Nexus?
As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available.
Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
Prime Mining:
Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet?
Please download the relevant miner from Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only.
Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder.
Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing.
It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file:
"experimental" : "true"
This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate.
Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability.
The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner.
Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf
You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder.
Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet.
For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
3. How do I stake Nexus?
Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active.
IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight?
These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values.
Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction.
Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%.
With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking.
Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases.
Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction).
This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions.
Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
submitted by scottsimon36 to nexusearth [link] [comments]

An open letter to Vitalik re: The DAO

Estimated Reading Time: 14 minutes.
TL;DR; I'm making the case that hard forking the Ethereum block chain to defeat the assault on The DAO's ether treasury isn't just okay to do, it's the responsibility of the platform to protect its interests at the expense of other interests which are hostile to its assets.
All organisms have the right to self defense - digital organisms must assert this right if they expect to survive. Any organism that refuses to defend itself against attack is effectively suicidal and essentially declaring itself as cheaply plundered 'food' from an evolutionary perspective.
At the same time, I'm also asserting that the person or people who attacked The DAO performed a service that has legitimate value. So while it's ethical to limit the damage done, it's also ethical to pay people fair value for services rendered - even if those people rendered those services in a hostile way. Paying them fairly stands a good chance of making them less less hostile, don't you think?
Finally, I suggest some changes to be included in the hard fork to drastically reduce the vulnerability of code running on Ethereum by requiring gas not only to execute code, but to execute test code with sufficient path coverage to reduce execution risk to acceptable levels and requiring bug bounties commensurate with the size and complexity of the code base that's being loaded on to the network.
This change, I assert will naturally lead to an economy of very well tested modularized code with economically capped complexity which it makes sense to share, for a fee commensurate with its 'security rating', to be wired together with other well-tested modules so less capable programmers can build their own drag and drop smart contracts without unintentionally compromising the network.
And by doing the work we should have done in the first place as we redesign The DAO and then write, test, and bounty the code properly, we'll then know about how much it's fair to pay the hacker after the hard fork removes his loot. I suggest that we pay 10x what it would have cost us to do this correctly in the first place - both so we'll all remember it and to say 'thanks' to a capable adversary for waking us up to a potentially lethal problem had we discovered it later.
The "lethal" part comes up in some discussion about protecting ourselves from emergent AI now rather than later on a network where code is intended to be available for execution forever. This TL;DR; is getting TL;DR; though, so please read on if any of that interests you. /TL;DR;
I have a few ideas for moving forward past this DAO issue. First, I think a hard fork making investors whole and denying the black hat 'tester' from a potentially network threatening payday is not only okay - it's compulsory, especially if it's presented in the right way, both technically and socially. The following is what I think is that 'right way.'
If this is explained honestly as being a fix, happening at a similar point in the evolution of DAO coding methodology to the maturity of the network itself when the bad fork canary and other safety measures were in place, then I think the people who support Ethereum because they share your vision of what it can become are going to understand that.
In fact, I'm confident many of them will admire not only the action taken, but the manner in which it was done.
Let's all own the mistake. Acknowledge it. Accept the fact that we will make other mistakes in the future, but that we're going to do everything we know how to do to make sure we won't repeat this one.
Then explain how we're going to do that, and move on with all of those who can see the honesty and sincerity of that statement and the intent of the actions taken.
No one is perfect. We all make mistakes. But hopefully we learn from them. Deep down, I think most people understand that, even if some of them will still scream "moral hazard" from the rooftops of reddit until the cows come home because they have a tribal psychological attachment to a different technology or cult of personality.
Or for arbitrary reasons: they don't trust Russians, they don't like young people, whatever. Or they may just legitimately not understand that innovation isn't a straight line up and to the right.
You can't reach those people - except for the last group - ignorance isn't shameful and it is very fixable. Apart from them, the others will be against you no matter what you do. Most of those people were already dismissing Ethereum as a scam or an alt-coin anyway.
Sacrificing the safety of the network or the financial and mental health of some overly enthusiastic (or, let's be honest - in some cases, a bit greedy and naive) early supporters in exchange for praise, respect, or support that will never come is a losing move. It costs the people who support Ethereum and/or The DAO dearly, and it results in little or no positive change.
There's no logic to making that move at all. Ethereum needs to do what's good for Ethereum and its supporters - not what it hopes might silence its critics. There will always be more critics. That's a losing strategy.
So hard fork to deny the attacker and restore the duped and self-duped. Full disclosure: that includes me. I knew there was a lot of risk to investing in something like this so I only invested an amount I was fully willing to lose - just for the experience of participating and being motivated to learn how it works.
Though obviously somebody was much more motivated than me - more motivated than all of us. And that's good - we need people like that. But we need to negotiate a fair exchange for their services in testing our code, not neglect security and therefore allow them to dictate the terms.
A dangerous animal can be your best friend, if you understand how to negotiate a compromise between its needs and yours successfully. I know this from experience - I have a very friendly pit bull. Neglect its needs - a well funded code bounty program, in this case, and you're going to get bit. A lot.
I don't want to have to read the damn DAO code. I want a hacking pit bull to do it for me, in fact, I'd prefer a pack of the baddest and meanest ones there are. I just don't want to get ripped off on the exchange of value.
Because there is legitimate value in what this hacker did. We are going to learn to do things in a much smarter way in response to it, because this community and this network are resilient and anti-fragile, respectively. We just over paid for the service.
But I recognize that other people did invest more than they were prepared to lose in this very complicated experiment. Some people who support your vision are going through a lot of very real pain right now, and so if we can stop that at a reasonable cost, then how can we not? Especially if it's strategically the right thing to do.
If there's one guiding principle I'm pretty confident when following - it's harm reduction. "Harm to whom?," I can hear some asking. Harm to the supporters of Ethereum and The DAO. The hacker invited a defensive response when he attacked the DAO, and it was an assault by any fair definition of the term, as I'll explain below.
The organism protects itself first, or it dies. This is digital evolution and the stakes are existential.
Some speculators and ideologues will move on. Those who 'get it' will still be here. And that's the support you really need to continue developing this platform and ecosystem - the support of those who aren't going to run away when we encounter problems. Because we will. And then we'll fucking fix them.
Because that's what invention is. It's messy. It's a process, not a moment in time. It's not like the movies. There is no single, all encompassing "Ah ha!" moment. You get little "ah ha's...' as you go. Mixed in with a bunch of "aw, shit!" moments as well. That's just how it goes.
Literally, the symbol for the "Ah ha!" moment is a cultural distortion. There were a lot of failed experiments between Edison's own "Ah ha!" moment and the moment he saw a stable and working light bulb.
Expecting people to invent a whole new world out of thin air - or out of the ether, as the case may be - based on very different principles from those of the failing systems that have created the circumstances from which it has a chance to emerge - well, that's complicated stuff.
Finding a coil that converts sufficient electricity into light while not destroying itself in the process for a reasonable amount of time is child's play compared to the places where Ethereum is going and the problems it needs to solve. But this is nothing new. Even Edison recognized and suffered from the effects of this cultural blindness:
When a reporter asked, "How did it feel to fail 1,000 times?" Edison replied, "I didn’t fail 1,000 times. The light bulb was an invention with 1,000 steps."
But there's an even stronger case for doing this, I believe, if you also use the necessity of the hard fork to add features which would reduce the chances of our experiencing similar issues in the future by enforcing the funding of code bounties and test/fall-back designs proportional to the gas required to execute the test harness against the code. With the test harness scaling that cost to account for the exponential complexity of adding and integrating a larger code base, since the test code must bloat exponentially faster than the code base in order to keep up.
This will keep modules of code manageable in size, because producing more complex modules will quickly become cost prohibitive past the targeted scale.
There's been a lot of talk about how Ethereum block-chain code needs to be of space shuttle quality caliber, because the intent is that once it starts, it doesn't stop.
And I agree that we need to be thinking in those terms. In fact, we need to be thinking of answers to questions like: what would we do if this network were eventually used to bootstrap a super-intelligent AI? Are we prepared for that? How could we manage that?
There was a story in the news recently about a machine learning robot that escaped its confinement. An accident? Maybe. But accident or not, those kinds of accidents in the future are inevitable, so we need to get out ahead of this problem sooner rather than later.
So let's ask ourselves, how could we avoid the existential crisis of the unexpected appearance of an all-powerful force that no one could stop, but that one person drained all of the 'control tokens' from, by exploiting an extremely complex recursive call bug, generated by a blockchain scanning neural net equipped hacker-bot, just after it went live, and whose owner is now the cruel slave master of the entire human race?
When I read that back, I'll admit my first impulse is to laugh, but am I wrong to worry? Isn't this apocalyptic future simply an extrapolation of current trends?
I think those are the kinds of questions we need to be asking of ourselves if we expect to deploy bullet proof code. Immortal code. AI code that can contain other AI code. That's the level of bullet proof we need to be bringing to the table.
And we have to get that right, right now. We can't put it off until later, because any bad code that is deployed to the network today, becomes a potential attack vector for any bot smart enough to discover it and understand how to amplify the effects of exploiting it, probably by chaining its inputs and outputs with other buggy code it has discovered, effectively crafting a computational lock pick to escape its constraints.
Some black hat hacker was smart enough to figure out how to orchestrate manipulative calls to multiple functions on The DAO interface in order to exploit it to their severe advantage.
And to those people who think no crime against property was committed, I would say this: what the hacker did was to manipulate a software 'lock' on a safe in much the same way that an 'irl' criminal would exploit the vulnerabilities of a physical lock with a pick, or a safe with a stethoscope, or a electronic lock with a code breaker. There's a difference between welcome interaction and unwelcome interaction, and this was clearly an assault on a well intended but imperfect digital defense mechanism.
Do we let safe crackers keep their loot because combination lock manufacturers haven't perfected the art of producing perfectly silent tumblers yet? Is that a legitimate defense in any rational discussion of guilt or innocence, much less in any historical court of law?
People are bringing up the concern that if the network developers intervene in this way, then it opens up a path for irl government to assert control over the content deployed to the network.
Well, that is a very real concern. But I think the right response to that concern is to assert that only the network is competent enough to protect itself, judge when an assault against digital property has been perpetrated, and then make a ruling to reverse the harm that was caused to those against whose property an offense was committed.
What's wrong with that? Even libertarians believe in the right of self defense. And in an increasingly complex digital economic ecosystem, why on Earth would any platform recuse itself of the right to defend against what it determines to be an attack, via whatever governance process it has in place?
That's not a governance plan, it's a suicide pact. You can't rely on the old system to police the new one. That would be like trying to mine Bitcoin on an Apple //e. It's preposterous, and for exactly the same reason - the capability gap is just way too vast.
So if you can't rely on the old system to protect you, and you can't survive without being able to protect yourself from attack, then what's the logical option? I think it's to admit that sometimes things will go wrong, and we're going to need to have an agreed up process about how we go about handling those situations.
It's a "catch block," okay? I know, I hate writing them too. But we'd better get good at it. Fast.
And once that governance process is established, then people can decide to alter their level of support based on a clear understanding of what the policies will be if and when things go wrong. There won't be any uncertainty. I think it's the uncertainly that largely contributes to panic.
We don't make perfect stuff. There's no perfect lock, and there's no perfect code. All we can do is to do our best to stay ahead of the curve and make plans to contain the damage from failures. Just like every other manufacturer of an exploitable product or tool has to do. It's an arms race between builders and destroyers.
And some are contemplating giving in to a would-be destroyer? On principle? Really? Which principle is that, exactly?
So let's imagine how much more creative a smart hacker-bot tool might be in the future in orchestrating interlocking exploits on code located on millions of future DAO interfaces, which it has all the time in the world (compared to our human DAO hacker) to analyze and scheme with.
That's a losing battle. Unless you modify the design.
Will it be expensive to adjust network usage fees to enforce the creation of bounty markets which balance code protection with code production? Yes, it probably will be.
But I think it's become evident in the last couple of days that the costs of not doing that may be far higher. And the stakes only get higher as we move forward.
But there are benefits that go along with the costs, if we take advantage of them. Another strategy I think would be helpful to adopt is a formalized policy and technology stack for constructing Dapps from high-bounty, long-deployed libraries of modules to reduce the costs of software development without sacrificing quality and security.
In other words - I think creating new programs on Ethereum in the future should be inversely expensive with respect to their degree of modularized code re-use. The economy should incentivize code re-use by making it economically attractive to expend the capital required to design, code, and then pay for bounty testing and attack targeting, in order to have a 'certified' module that anyone can incorporate into their own smart contracts - for a fee that corresponds to the amount of bug bounty and test capital that has been invested in that code.
There's no free lunch. If we want the best code humans can produce, then we have to pay for it. One way or the other.
This approach would also have the nice side-effect of making coding a smart contract via a drag and drop interface come about much sooner rather than later. But you should only put code like that into the hands of inexperienced developers once it has been sufficiently tested by experts and the very best malicious attackers.
Doing otherwise might be considered the digital equivalent of handing hand grenades to babies. It's a really bad idea to release buggy code out into the wild, and unless Ethereum has protocol level protection against that, I don't see how you prevent that from happening with Turing complete scripts.
The code base will eventually reach a complexity/error collapse point that exposes more and more weaknesses to ever less sophisticated attacks. That seems like a losing strategy.
Finally, I would also suggest that before the hard fork replaces the DAO members' ether a sum be subtracted and sent to the DAO hacker's address. And that sum, I would suggest, should be an order of magnitude larger than the cost of developing and executing the test harness that would have been required to spot the error plus the estimated value of the bounties that would have been lost had the code been running unprotected over the period of time it took to develop the test suite.
In my opinion, this is a way to try to balance harm reduction for both sides. Pay the hacker generously for the flaw they pointed out that we need to learn how to systematically fix, not just for one contract on the network, but for all of them. But also protect the network and its supporters.
I think that's a reasonable policy for governance - do everything possible to protect against attacks and also respect fair exchanges of value with outside parties - even those parties who were guilty of a thwarted attack. Treat your adversary with respect, in other words. Pay them fairly for testing your steel.
Ultimately Ethereum will succeed or fail based on its ability to deliver on your vision, not on the number of mistakes we had to overcome to get there. So please stay faithful to the supporters of that vision. Together I think we're all going to do some amazing things.
submitted by BadLibertarian to ethtrader [link] [comments]

PSA to new users of bitcoin (especially if you feel you don't understand bitcoin very well)

This thread on bitcointalk worries me. I suspect a lot of people are buying and have bought something they don't understand, and I'm concerned that thefts are going to increase as a result. If this is you, please read this.
To access your bitcoins and transact with the network you're going to use a wallet. This will either be a piece of software you install on your computer or an online wallet service like The wallet jargon is just a convenient way to refer to what's going on under the hood. Every Bitcoin address has an associated private key, and the private key is really just a string of numbers and letters. You can only spend bitcoins at addresses for which you also have the associated private key. If you happen to find somebody else's private key, then you can import it into other Bitcoin clients or online wallets and then you have the ability to spend any coins associated with that private key's addresses.
Most wallet clients give you the option to encrypt your private key. Please do that. That means you can protect it with a password. You will be asked for this password to create transactions. Your login password serves that purpose, for example.
Use strong and unique passwords. That advice applies to your entire online life, really. If you use weak passwords and/or you don't use unique passwords, then you are at risk of somebody guessing your password using a computer designed to make lots of guesses. If your passwords are not unique that gives attackers the opportunity to compromise more than one service. It's best to use a mix of lower case, upper case, numbers, and symbols in your passwords. Your passwords should also be sufficiently long, around 16 characters, for services that you would really hate getting compromised. You should still use unique passwords for services you don't consider critical, but for those services you might not feel it's necessary to use long passwords with a mix of all character types. Of course, this is all up to you.
Passwords managers can help you organize lots of strong, unique passwords. Lastpass is a fantastic password manager. It works across all the major browsers and they even have mobile apps. You create one really, really strong password that you must never forget, and then Lastpass organizes and remembers all of your other passwords for you. Lastpass encrypts all of your data before it's sent to their servers, so they can't see your passwords. If you forget your Lastpass password, then you lose access to passwords stored with them, unless you remember them or have them stored somewhere else.
You can make strong passwords easier to remember by increasing their length with a relatively simple pattern while still using each character type. This is called password padding. Security researcher Steve Gibson explains by comparing two passwords:
Which of the following two passwords is stronger, more secure, and more difficult to crack?
You probably know this is a trick question, but the answer is: Despite the fact that the first password is HUGELY easier to use and more memorable, it is also the stronger of the two! In fact, since it is one character longer and contains uppercase, lowercase, a number and special characters, that first password would take an attacker approximately 95 times longer to find by searching than the second impossible-to-remember-or-type password!"
Strong, unique, but memorable passwords depend on using all character types and adding memorable length. You really should also avoid dictionary words and common modifications of simple dictionary words (e.g. dog, d0g, etc.) Consistent with the advice to use unique passwords, you wouldn't want to use the same padding technique for more than one critical password.
Multi-Factor Authentication
Many online services (e.g. gmail,, MtGox, Lastpass) offer the option to use multi-factor authentication. If this service is offered, you should use it. This means that you need more than your password to log into your account. It can come in the form of a number sent as a text to your phone, a usb key that must be plugged into your computer, or an app like Google Authenticator. When you log into a service for which multi-factor authentication has been activated you will be asked for both your password and an additional pin sent to or derived from a separate device. This offers you some protection from key loggers which an attacker can install on your computer to see everything you type. Even if they discover your password, they will be unable to log in without the additional pin from, say, your phone. A previously used pin will not work, they would need one generated specifically for the most recent attempt to log in.
If the email provider that you use offers multi-factor authentication, and you use that email to register for important services (e.g. online banking, bitcoin wallets, exchanges, etc), then you should definitely enable multi-factor authentication. If an attacker can compromise your email, then they can potentially access lots of websites your registered at, because they can ask the websites to reset your password. Websites typically send a password reset email under the assumption that only you have control of your email. If you don't, an attacker can change the passwords to your web services. By enabling multi-factor authentication on your email, you can significantly decrease the odds of an attacker compromising your email. You should likewise use multi-factor authentication with any password managers you use, if you choose to use one.
This might all seem very inconvenient. However, the security gained far outweighs any convenience lost.
Advanced Bitcoin Wallet Security
The most secure way to safeguard your bitcoin value is to create and keep your private keys on systems that cannot be hacked into. This can be a computer that is setup without ever touching the internet, or paper wallets. A paper wallet is just some text based way to represent your private key. An attacker cannot compromise an offline computer without physical access, and he would additionally need to know the passwords to log onto your offline computer. If you have offline systems such as offline computers or paper or other physical wallets, then obviously the attack vector is basically physical burglary.
The Armory bitcoin client is a client designed to maximize security options. Armory makes it relatively painless to setup an offline wallet. A computer does not need to be connected to the internet to create valid bitcoin private keys with associated bitcoin addresses. That's because their creation is determined by algorithms that can be copied and run on any computer with or without network connections.
With Armory you can setup offline bitcoin wallets. In order to send bitcoins to that wallet you just need to copy an address created on the offline computer. The offline wallet can create what's called a "watching only wallet". This is a wallet you can import into an online installation of Armory on a different networked computer. From the online watching only wallet you can see bitcoins sent to your addresses and you can create unsigned transactions. You can try to broadcast an unsigned transaction, but it will not be confirmed in the blockchain, and is not a valid transaction. In order to send the transaction into the blockchain and have it validated you will need to copy the unsigned transaction to a USB device, import it into the offline Armory wallet, sign the transaction, then copy and move it back to your online Armory wallet. From there, it can be sent and received as a valid bitcoin transaction. In this way it is made practically impossible for a network attack to steal your bitcoins.
It's a good idea to create additional offline backups of your Armory wallets. Armory has a feature to create printable offline backups. These can be used to restore your wallet in the event that your offline computer is destroyed or stolen.
Systems like this are more inconvenient, but offer the highest level of relatively easy to setup security.
Thanks, welcome to bitcoin, and stay safe.
Edited to add a section on advanced wallet security
submitted by therealproudhon to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Nexus FAQ - part 2

Full formatted version:

The Nexus Community:

  1. What principles does Nexus abide by?
  2. Who is building Nexus?
  3. Who do I contact to become involved?

Nexus - Past & Future:

  1. How did Nexus start?
  2. Is there a roadmap for Nexus?
  3. What does TAO stand for?
  4. When is Tritium expected to be released?
  5. How will Nexus solve the scaling debate?
  6. What is the 3DC or 3D Chain?
  7. How will Nexus solve blockchain bloat?
  8. Will Nexus incorporate Smart Contracts?
  9. Will there be any hard forks in Nexus?

Bringing Nexus to Earth:

  1. Nexus claims to “decentralize the decentralization.” What does this mean?
  2. How is Nexus going to put Cubesats into orbit?
  3. Why is Nexus using Vector Space and Galactic Sky?
  4. When will the first Cubesats be launched?
  5. How many Cubesats are required for the mesh network?
  6. How much does it cost to build and deploy the satellites, and how is this funded?
  7. Does Nexus have any developers working on developing the mesh network?
  8. Where can I find further information?

The Nexus Community:

1. What principles does Nexus abide by?
Nexus operates under the following overarching principles:
Respecting ourselves and others brings greater cooperation and growth, building strong relationships and stronger communities.
Through knowledge we are able to discover the mysteries of the universe, gain a greater understanding of those around us, and let go of the fears that hold us back. The pursuit of knowledge is an adventure that brings us amazing discoveries which enrich our everyday lives.
Honesty and transparency foster trust between people, which helps us make better decisions in all aspects of our lives and enables us to be our authentic selves. Honesty cultivates our awareness of the reality around us and improves our communication with others.
Pursuing our individual goals and following our passions, without being censored or needlessly hampered, is true freedom. When people voluntarily associate with each other, respecting the principle of ownership, we are able to reach our potential and find true happiness. Freedom is a positive-sum game; a win-win for all people across the globe.
2. Who is building Nexus?
The Nexus blockchain is being developed by the Nexus Earth Embassy, a registered nonprofit organization in the United States of America. The Embassy is funded through the Nexus Ambassador Fund.
The Core team members are:
Colin and Brian are full-time developers working on Nexus. We have many part-time contributors that work with our core development team, and we are always keen to find more C++/blockchain team members.
3. Who do I contact to become involved?

Nexus - Past & Future

1. How did Nexus start?
Nexus started as a vision of improving the Bitcoin protocol, and at the same time cleaning the cryptosphere from scam coins.
Lead Developer Videlicet (Viz) studied the foundations of the Bitcoin Core code, understanding how Satoshi structured Bitcoin and identifying opportunities for improvement. At this time, the altcoin market was being flooded with scams and pump and dump schemes where coins pushing promises, buzz words, and the allure of quick profits were used to swindle BTC from communities. Fom Viz’s vision, Coinshield (CSD) was born.
The first CSD block was mined on September 23, 2014 at 16:20 UTC-7, and the project soon-to-be named Nexus was live. At that point, the project had one channel of mining: a Prime Mining channel (CPU). On October 23, 2014, the Hashing (GPU) channel was launched as the second proof channel. The blocks included a first-ever subsidy, where a portion from each mined block would be sent to one of 13 developer accounts and another portion would be sent to one of 13 exchange accounts. On January 24, 2015, CSD was listed on Bittrex Exchange.
Shortly afterwards, Viz drafted the first whitepaper that outlined how the network would work to recycle and merge the economies and communities of these scam coins. The goal was to help the people in those communities, bring them into the CSD community, and at the same time help clean up the cryptosphere. The exchange accounts would be used to merge these economies by exchanging the coins for a portion of CSD.
On April 11, 2015, Viz announced the intention to rebrand to Nexus. Discussion pursued about the ticker symbol, and NIRO was chosen to represent Nexus. On July 24, 2015, Nexus version 2.0 was released with Nexus Proof of State (nPOS) and the introduction of the Trust Network. This laid the foundation for the broader scope of Nexus.
At the beginning of September 2015, Videlicet revealed his identity as Colin Cantrell. In October 2015, a more formal team was formed to promote development, build the community, and market Nexus. The ticker symbol was revised to NXS. Discussions on Nexus’s direction led to the decision to abandon the recycling and merging that was part of the Coinshield project. The technical work required to implement the merging was done, but with the explosion in the number of new cryptos, the process would have had little impact. Therefore, Nexus began to develop into something much more expansive. The project had a whole new direction.
2. Is there a roadmap for Nexus?
Nexus does not release a detailed roadmap to the public, in order to prevent price manipulation. Providing dates and deadlines creates fear of missing out (FOMO) when they approach, and fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD) if they are missed or met. Instead, Nexus outlines a Strategic Vision, consistent development updates, and a set of larger releases called the TAO.
Future features:
3. What does TAO stand for?
Each letter represents the activation of a component required for the 3DC. Each component corresponds to a transaction level lock.
All three of these updates will include improvements to the advanced contracting virtual machine.
4. When is Tritium expected to be released?
The Tritium wallet will form the basis of the Tritium updates, as the new wallet will include a faster backend, and a cleaner interface design. This also speeds up transaction throughput, implements Level 1 locks, and also activates signature chains with enhanced trust algorithms.
The Nexus developers want to ensure that they release the best architecture possible and are working diligently on making this complicated process a reality.
5. How does Nexus solve the scaling debate?
Since every transaction requires space in a block, there are several solutions that have been proposed for blockchains. Bitcoin has Segregated Witness and Lightning Network, and Ethereum has Plasma, but both essentially rely on off-chain solutions to provide scaling (a more centralized approach). They create payment channels or side chains, that rely on the trust of the verifier to then re-commit the updated balances at the discretion of trusted verifier.
The second proposed solution is to increase block sizes or reduce blocks times as in Ethereum’s case. Effectively, this increases the capacity for new transaction either through size or frequency. Namely, more transactions can fit within a single block, or there are more blocks per time interval. Since each Bitcoin block is found roughly every 10 minutes, increased block size increases the number of transactions per second the protocol can handle.
If you look beyond these solutions, however, there is a key problem with the way the Bitcoin protocol processes transactions. Regardless of the computing power working to find blocks, each block can only fit so much data, and each block still takes 10 minutes to find. Bitcoin consumes the energy equivalent to powering a small country, and yet the only thing that increases is the mining difficulty. This is because each miner is competing with every other miner to find the next block.
Nexus recognizes that using proof-of-work as a competition is ineffective. In fact, this is the very reason that mining pools exist in the first place. Nexus’s 3D chain uses a synergistic approach where additional resources adds capability to the network. The Nexus 3D Chain by design should only be limited by node count, allowing it to scale unhindered.
6. What is the 3DC or 3D Chain?
Nexus’s innovation is to replace the mining pool with the blockchain itself on the Level 3 locks. Instead of miners having the authority to determine the next block by getting the winning hash, mining will become a group-wide activity. Miners will submit hashes to the network that lock the Level 2 proof of stake hashes, and agree by group consensus the data that will be locked. With no “one hash rules all,” the 3DC will be a set of hashes that will be combined into a single root hash for that block interval.
As transactions are performed, nodes in the network start verifying them immediately. When they are validated, they are locked by the CPU miners and assigned a weight (L1). This weight and trust increases as more nodes agree that the transaction has happened. As more transactions arrive, the ‘heavier’ transactions require less work and the CPU miners begin on the newer transactions.
After the transactions are validated and locked, the proof-of-stake nodes start to consolidate them into a single hash using their holdings of NXS to provide weight. This locks the transactions with the L2 Trust Lock, which is far more secure than the L1 locks, because all the information has already been verified at this stage.
The GPU miners finalize the addition of the block to the blockchain by hashing the Merkle root hash produced by the L2 Trust Locks.
For more information on the 3D blockchain, please follow this link
7. How does Nexus solve blockchain bloat?
Every single transaction performed on a blockchain takes up a small amount of data. Over time, regardless of how small each transaction can be made, the blockchain gets bigger. This is an immutable fact of the blockchain protocol. Satoshi, the anonymous creator of Bitcoin, envisaged the network’s capacity to only be limited by Moore’s Law. As we can see now, this still is a large bottleneck.
After the Segwit upgrade for Bitcoin, a 1MB block size can fit an estimated 12195 transactions per block. With a 10-minute average time per block, that’s only about 20 transactions per second maximum. In practice, this figure lies somewhere between 7-10 transactions per second on average. In order to surpass Visa, which handles 2000 per second on average, block sizes would need to exceed 98MB. If you extrapolate this over a year, then the blockchain would grow by 5 TB every year.
Obviously, this would be difficult to sustain. There are several proposals aimed at reducing this problem, from sharding, to child chains, to blockchain pruning. Nexus’s solution uses a custom-made Lower Level Database to select nodes to service pieces of the 3D blockchain structure. This allows nodes to partition their data use and chain storage across the network. They will no longer require the full chain to reside on their system. The more nodes in the network, the less each individual node will need to service.
8. Will Nexus incorporate smart contracts?
Nexus’s contract functionality will consist of contract templates embedded into the underlying code within the 3DC. Nexus contracts will not be turing-complete because infinite runtime is never necessary nor secure in a digital currency. This means Nexus contracts will be more usable without creating network congestion issues.
Some of these contracts will be used to enable key Nexus functionality and will work invisibly. Examples of this functionality includes:
Contracts can be used to store and update information, create payment channels, prove identity, and any number of possible functions yet to be imagined.
9. Will there be any hard forks in Nexus?
Nexus is designed to avoid hard forks via the incorporation of an update mechanism which will create updates to consensus rules without having to change the code. These rules will only be issued by developers and their according developer key signature, and will be validated by the other five voting groups.

Bringing Nexus to Earth:

1. Nexus claims to “decentralize the decentralization.” What does this mean?
As decentralized as blockchain technology strives to be, it nevertheless remains dependant on traditional infrastructure. By combining the decentralized blockchain software, satellite and ground based mesh networks, and a large team of passionate people, Nexus is focused on gaining a high degree of autonomy from external influences. By placing our own communication infrastructure in space, the network won’t be susceptible to government jurisdiction (similar to international waters).
Nexus’s three-dimensional chain will also reduce the need for mining pools. Pools exist because traditional blockchains only reward miners when they find a block, which can be rare. In essence, Nexus will become the pool, with miners being rewarded for each contribution instead of each block.
The phrase “decentralize the decentralization" was taken from an article written by founder Videlicet on May 6th, 2016. It was the introduction to the idea of “Blockchain 3.0”, and followed up with the technical architectures outlined above. The full article can be read here.
2. How is Nexus going to put cubesats into orbit?
Nexus has partnered with Vector Space Systems, which was co-founded by Jim Cantrell. Jim is a veteran in the aerospace industry, having worked with NASA and co-founding SpaceX with Elon Musk. Vector uses small disposable rockets to cut down costs, and are capable of launching 66 kg into low earth orbit (LEO). A standard 1U cubesat weighs less than 1.33 kg, so each launch can put approximately 25 satellites into orbit. We have also found certain opportunities in developing satellites that weigh less than one kilogram to increase the number of satellites per rocket launch.
3. Why is Nexus using Vector Space and Galactic Sky?
Vector Space offers affordable launch capability, as it seeks to reshape the multi-billion dollar launch market. It is an innovative leader in the micro-satellite launch industry, as big companies like SpaceX focus on launching mid- to large-size satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Vector plans to be one of the first companies to offer affordable low earth orbit (LEO) capability in 2018.
Galactic Sky, which is a business unit of Vector, uses software-defined satellites to provide a satellite virtualization platform. Using this virtual environment, developers can test ideas and algorithms to demonstrate satellite viability without having to launch and test in orbit. This helps accelerate the conception and testing process, going from years to weeks.
The connection between Vector Space and Nexus goes beyond that of supplier and client. Jim Cantrell, CEO and co-founder of Vector Space Systems, is a firm supporter of Nexus and has interest in its success.
4. When will the first cubesats be launched?
Nexus is planning to start launching its first satellites for the Phase 1 constellation in 2019. The satellite designs are currently in development, with our top priority being the implementation of the TAO framework supporting the 3D blockchain. We will also see collaboration with Galactic Sky as it is deployed through the year of 2019.
5. How many cubesats are required for the mesh network?
The Nexus mesh network will consist of a range of satellites, from the sub-1U to the larger 3U satellites. Approximately 2000 cubesats will be required to achieve total global coverage. The ground-based mesh networks will help scale and balance this load by performing data transmission on the ground rather than requiring satellite access at all times.
Constellations will be put up in stages, with Phase 1 providing intermittent connectivity. Our launch agreement terms will be disclosed as it is formalized in early 2018.
6. How much does it cost to build and deploy the satellites, and how is this funded?
Each 1U cubesat costs approximately $20,000 - 50,000 each to produce depending on assembly and how many units are purchased. A 3U satellite, being larger, can cost up to $100,000. Each Vector launch costs between $1.5 million and $3 million, depending on payload size.
The funding for building and launching these satellites will come from the Nexus Ambassador Fund.
7. Does Nexus have any developers working on developing the mesh network?
The mesh network is being developed by Phillip Swazey. Phillip used to work for Iridium, a satellite communication company which currently operates its own satellite constellation. He is currently designing our preliminary 1U satellites for Phase 1 deployment.
8. Where can I find further information?
submitted by scottsimon36 to nexusearth [link] [comments]

Vector image of detailed BTC logo

Hi guys, I am designing a BTC wallet image and would like to use more or less this image in vector format:
Does anyone have it?
submitted by Dwaas_Bjaas to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Another Announcement and Pt.2 and Pt.3

Good morning, it is I, the mighty, the glorious, PizzaLoli. I want to apologize for not posting Pt.2 last night, so to do so I decided I would post two parts tonight and post another in two days--as I specified I would two nights ago. Once again, I am very sorry, so please enjoy!
Part 2: “Recent Events and Checking the P.O. Box.”
After seeing the message, Grace ran outside, of course having Lucina following her, and hopped inside her silver pick-up truck.
Currently, they were driving past the suburban area, passing houses, apartment buildings, grocery stores, and anything else one would see while driving through a suburban area.
In the passenger seat, Lucina sat and watched as the scenery passed. It was all barren and abandoned, in some places it even was evident that nature was taking back over in all of the chaos which was apparently unfolding elsewhere today.
It was genuinely and surprisingly beautiful.
Grace noticed Lucina fading into the scenery around them, “Hey,” She said, nudging at her with her right arm, “Do you want to know how all this happened?”
“You know?” Lucina asked her, still looking out her window.
“I’ll tell you as much as I can.”
“Go ahead then.”
“This all started about a few months ago, right? So basically, before the beginning of all this madness, the government officials were trying to grab some of these important guys and leave. All of them. Why? No one knows, but there are a few speculations of things like aliens, which, frankly, no sane person should be able to believe that or a nuclear meltdown at the facility over there.” Grace said, pointing over her shoulder with her thumb.
Lucina nodded and made an approving humming noise.
Ahead, they were approaching a giant pile up of cars which were all stopped in front of two buses parked perpendicular to the road with a fairly large post office to the left, and a giant school of some kind to the right.
“We’re almost there.” Grace said, slowing down.
Lucina looked forward and saw the cars, “What do you mean? Are you saying we’re going to go through that or something?”
“Nope, you’re way off.” Grace replied, pulling off to the left side of the road and against the curb, stopping once she made it to the back bumper of some small electric sedan.
“So, where then?”
Grace opened her door, placing her right in front of the post office’s front doors of a dark wood, “Here.”
“This place? Really?” Grace heard Lucina practically yell from inside the truck, then throw the door open and jump out. She ran to Grace’s side, “Really? Please tell me you’re not joking!”
“I’m not, what do you think all of this is for, eh?” Grace asked, motioning at her armor and helmet.
Lucina shrugged and walked toward the doors, opening two of them at once. From inside, a welcoming smell and feeling of a heater and last night’s can of beef soup all seeped out into the street.
Grace walked up behind Lucina and pushed her in, following quickly inside, and closing the door behind them. Currently, they were inside of the main room, which spanded about thirty meters from the door to the other side of the roon and five times that from the wall on their left to the wall on their right.
“Woah…” Lucina spun around, looking up at the ceiling which was much, much taller than her and Grace too.
Although the room was big, that didn’t necessarily mean it was tidy. All around them were piles of papers, letters, and boxes. Only some of the boxes were open, but Grace thought that most of it was most likely things she wouldn’t be needing.
“Come on, this isn’t where I’m set up,” Grace pointed at another double door on the opposite wall, “It’s all in there.”
Lucina followed with her eyes to where Grace was pointing, then ran to the door.
“You’re really hyper, aren’t you?”
“Most of the time.”
Grace walked over and pulled a key out of her chest rig, inserted, turned, and pulled it out of the lock on the door then pushed them open to reveal an extremely clean hallway with about four doors on each side and a ninth at the opposite end.
“Wow! You cleaned this place?” Lucina asked, running to each door, opening it, peeking in, and closing it.
“I must have.” Grace nodded and locked the doors behind them.
“The walls don’t have anything but their paint on them, the doors have all kept their dark color, and the tile floor is still shiny!” Lucina exclaimed, arriving at the last door, “What’s this?”
“A special room, the largest one too.” Grace said, walking over.
“There’s a keypad and a normal lock on here…” Lucina said, seeming disappointed.
“Which I can open.” Grace responded, pulling out another key and unlocking one, then pushing in a ten-digit code on the pad.
The locks clicked, and the door turned inward. Inside, massive shelves with computers making a low humming sound filled the back, and the front had a metal platform with a large terminal in the center and yellow guardrails separating the two parts of the room.
“No way. I can’t believe what I’m seeing.” Lucina said, walking in, “I must be hallucinating. There’s no way you could get this many computers in here!”
She was right, normally, a single computer in the sectioned off area of Russia known as the Novrinsk region was rare, but this many, it made the owner look like the *filler*.
The computers were each wired up with two wires each, one leading toward the terminal, and the other leading to a giant generator to their right.
“What’s this then?” Lucina asked, walking to the console.
“It’s what overlooks all of the progress made by the computers.” Grace replied, walking to Lucina’s side, “Here, take a look.”
Grace pressed one of the buttons, making the monitor in the center of the three turn on, showing a number with three digits before the decimal as well as having some symbol of a coin with a B on it.
“No. No way.”
It was near impossible. According to the screen Grace boasted, she was very, very rich. Too rich to be inside of Novrinsk. The number on her screen was of BitCoin, a type of cryptocurrency which was fairly expensive of date. The screen said she had about 672.48 bitcoin--approximately 11,714,601.60 USD, or 676,700,990.18 rubles.
“What..?” Lucina was at a loss of words, “Why are you still here then? You could bribe your way out of here!”
“But that’s no fun. You see, I can still make a lot of money. Much, much more money.” Grace grinned.
Part 3: “Of all Times, Night was the Worst.”
Lucina was sleeping so peacefully. Peaceful sleep was a very large rarity nowadays, considering most of the time you could hear gunshots cracking across the night sky every night, but Lucina was lucky, it seemed as though there was no fighting to be had tonight.
Game Over, Grace. The phrase made its way back into the priority of Grace’s mind. It meant her old employer wasn’t exactly “happy” with her recent actions, but that didn’t matter. For various reasons.
She backed out of the room she had given to Lucina, the guest room, and closed the door. And locked it.
Grace continued to walk down the hallway, then turning into the first door on her right, the one next to the guest room, her room. As she entered, she looked around for each piece of equipment which she had hung up before she ate and put Lucina to bed.
Everything she had put down--everything besides her forest ACUPAT fatigues--were inside; her helmet, called a Fast MT, sat on the bedside table, her anti-explosive armor, called a 6B43 6A, hung on a hook next to the closet, and her holster, which had an extra slot for a magazine, sat completely filled by a suppressed M9, with a tactical flashlight/laser attached and a DeltaPoint red dot sight on top, sat next to the helmet.
She strapped the holster onto her right thigh--even though she was ambidextirous, she preferred her right hand for her pistol--threw the armor over her head, then applied the straps around her waist, and placed her goggles--which were inside the helmet--on, followed by the helmet itself.
Once she had equipped the gear from her room, she exited and head down the hall, past one door and into the next, the weapon racks. Inside the weapon racks room were--obviously--gun racks, six of them, with three weapons, be it rifles, shotguns, as well as the single light machine gun, the M60.
After taking a minute to appreciate her wide selection of weapons, she grabbed the KRISS Vector off of a table in the back--since it was not large enough to place on one of the rack--next to a large rifle, as well as the Remington RSASS which was on the front rack, to be displayed to all eyes lucky enough to get this far without getting shot.
After throwing the RSASS’s strap over her shoulder, she left the room, turning back to the door to lock the two locks on it and crossed the hall to the munitions stash. This door only had one lock, although it was a complicated keypad lock.
Inside were black, labeled boxes in stacks sorted by caliber size. Nearest to the door were the larger bullets, starting from the uncommon rifle caliber 12.7x99mm, or better known as the .50 BMG which is fired from the even less common Barrett .50, and ending at the one box of 5.6x15mmR, or the .22 long rifle.
Grace slowly walked along the aisle, which was all the room left in the room, reading the tags as she went, looking for the bullet similar to the .308 winchester, the 7.62x51mm NATO for her RSASS. After passing a few of the stacks, she stopped and grabbed the top box, placed it on the ground, and opened it.
Inside the box were two smaller boxes labeled as M80 and M61 as well as eight magazines all shoved in the other half of the black box.
Grace grabbed the box labeled M61 and three magazines, then started to load them at a painfully fast pace, one magazine of twenty bullets filled in less than seven seconds.
She pulled the RSASS off of her shoulder and loaded one of the magazines, after placing the other two on the ground and the boxes back where they were, and loaded a single bullet into the chamber by pulling the bolt back and letting it slip back into its resting position, then placed the RSASS back over her shoulder.
Grace then continued down the aisle, now searching for a black box labeled as 11.43x23mm, another way of labeling the .45 ACP pistol round which was to be used in her KRISS Vector.
Once again, she stopped and knelt down in front of another stack of boxes, pulling one down which had an additional label, “Vector”, to tell her that the magazines for her Vector were also inside the box. She lifted the lid, and inside were, again, two smaller boxes and three magazines on the other half.
The two smaller boxes were labeled as FMJ and HP, meaning Full Metal Jacket and Hollow-Point.
She reached in to grab the three magazines and the box labeled as FMJ, to then load each magazine with twenty five bullets each, only to load them slower, keeping the size of the bullets in mind and knowing how easy it would be to drop one.
Once finished, she tucked two of the magazines under one arm and grabbed her Vector with the other, loading in one of the magazines and chambering a round in a similar way to the RSASS.
As she stood back up, she let the Vector hang loose on the strap, which went over her shoulder and head, and walked back down the aisle to the door which she turned, revealing a Wartech MK3 chest rig which had multiple pouches and slots for magazines.
She placed the two remaining Vector magazines into two slim, long slots and the two RSASS magazines into a smaller pouch on the left.
After placing the magazines inside, she took it off the door and placed it over her armor, adding a good three kilos, then checked the other pouches and where the rig would hold together.
Grace then exited the room, closing the door and hearing the lock click behind her. It was a useful lock.
Next, the med room. She headed down the hallway to the next door and entered. Inside was a room similar to a hospital room, only not as white and sterile. There was a bed with a table next to it, a stack of clothes--white t-shirt and blue jeans--on the table, and a counter across the room, next to the door which had multiple syringes strewn about on top.
She walked along, picking up two clear syringes and an orange syringe, then placing them into a pouch on her rig opposite of the pouch with the RSASS magazines.
After scooping the syringes up, she found a small, white pouch with a red cross at the end of the counter. It was an IFAK which seemed to be unopened, so it was presumably never used. Grace found it a small pouch next to the syringes and placed it inside, then walked to the door.
After exiting, she thought of what she might be missing. Close range, Vector. Medium to far, RSASS. Meds, IFAK and morphine. Extra mags, yep, I’ve got those. Pistol, check.
She felt as though she was missing something, but decided it unnecessary and walked to the doors leading to the vast open room in the front of the post office.
Grace knew what was going to happen, and that’s why so much adrenaline was already taking effect on her mind, things started slowing down without her, things started getting louder and louder. It was something she could never forget nor leave behind, this feeling. It made her feel invincible.
Grace took a step forward, and another, then another, making her way to the doorway. Although she was carrying a decent amount of weight, she moved fairly agilely. Another few steps and she was almost there.
The doors stood like guards, keeping evil-doers away from a queen or a person of authority.
She cracked her neck and knuckles, preparing for what will happen next. Then, she pulled out the orange syringe and turned it around in her hand in the light.
It was what let her survive so long, but caused the massive amounts of pain she’d lived with since what happened.
Grace popped the cap off, revealing an inch-long needle protruding from the bottom.
Good luck, future me. Hope the headache doesn’t get too bad. She stabbed the needle into her thigh and pushed the liquid into her system.
It would take a while, but the results made it all worth it. It made her what people knew her as. It let her call herself an old name still.
What keeps me sane? It was a random thought, but it somehow slipped in, It seems obvious considering I didn’t shoot Lucina in the bunker. What stopped me?
She didn’t know.
Then it all surged in. The adrenaline finally hit her head from her bloodstream. Everything seemed clearer.
Humanity. It survived somehow. I guess I’m still human.
Ha. Grace? Human? There’s not even a chance. A foreign voice was taking over her mind, who was it? It was her real self.
My turn. They took their goddamn time.
All of Grace’s muscles locked up, then relaxed, and Grace could no longer control anything she did, but instead, hear the calm humming coming from her throat.
She picked up her Vector, aiming at the ready, preparing to breach the right door.
It was a simple way to gain the advantage. The enemy didn’t know exactly where she was in the building, and they had--presumably--just entered the building.
Her right leg raised up and her weight shifted to her left, her thigh tensed then it kicked out harder and faster than Grace had ever thought she could go, hitting the door with her foot which had on heavy, steel sole boots.
The door flew off of its hinges, landing a good meter or two away from the doorway, to reveal a group of four United Security Private Military Contractors close by, a group of two across the street on the roof of the school, looking in through the windows in the front of the post office, and a last group out on the street hiding behind cars with a number close to five.
About eleven? This is not even fair.
For them.
It seems you changed, at least a little bit.
However, the soldiers were less optimistic than Grace and her alter-ego, it seemed. As each of their faces were slowly turning from hard resolve and determination to absolute, pure fear.
It was the least surprising, it was likely the brass would leave out this detail as no one would turn up for the assault.
The reason why, it was simple, Grace was an old co-worker of these wonderful PMCs. She used to run assaults with people like these, until it all happened.
She was deployed here without any intel or orders, but as they arrived, her deployment was gunned down upon at the lighthouse by a Russian PMC faction. Grace was one of the only two to immediately survive out of the first deployment of thirty, and the other was wounded excruciatingly, bleeding out in three places, and with more than a pound of lead adding on to his standard weight. Unsurprisingly, he had passed, but with mercy rather than without.
After that, she had scraped what the enemy had left behind, armor, helmets, ammo, weapons, food, water and ran, looking for somewhere to hide until the brass sent people to come save her.
However, within her, there was an undying question of, “Will they really come to save me?”
Of course, I’ve been working for them for six years now. They wouldn’t just leave me. She had thought. It was horrible. She was only twenty-six when she got here and her birthday had been coming up soon after, but she had lost count of the days.
But, that question grew, louder and louder every day. No one called in on the comms, no one was searching the streets, only patrolling.
You are naive, A voice started sprouting from the question, You are not fit for this. I will help. Accept me.
At first, she didn’t, but it became self-evident she would have to in order to maintain at least decent health.
Grace herself had apparently spaced out, but her other self had not. The front most four operators were already on the ground alongside her Vector, as she was now preparing her RSASS for ranged fire.
The real Grace would be capable of half of this, even with the adrenaline, but this version of Grace was a real fighter. She had a real fighter’s instincts and no doubts when ready to pull the trigger. Stopping her was like fighting against the will of some higher being, although, it was likely there was none above Tarkov, with all that had happened here already.
The fact that there was no easy way to escape from Tarkov was very easy to come to. There were ways, yes, but none were easy to achieve for someone like a normal citizen who used to reside in this city.
The two snipers now lay face down on the roof, the rifle in one’s hand pointing up. Dead, presumably.
The crosshair of the RSASS’s scope moved down to the street, where the rest waited, quivering with fear.
In Tarkov, there were plenty of bandits and criminals from the old city left, causing trouble everywhere, and there were also new heroes and villains raised by people’s skills and imagination.
Now there were no longer any barrels pointed at Grace, and not nearly as many sounds assaulting her ears. It was over.
There. My job’s done, go clean up or whatever you do now.
Still no thank you?
Thank you for reading! I hope you all have a nice day/night! Don't forget to sleep well <3
Part 6:
Part 4 and 5:
Part 1:
Original Post:
Sorry and Thanks,
submitted by PizzaLoli to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

4/11/14 - China, Mt. Gox buyout, Gyft Cloud, BIT & new bitcoin symbol
Happy Friday with today's top news in Money & Tech:
As the situation in China continues to develop, the People’s Bank of China clarified in a statement that they have no intention of banning bitcoin. The statement went on to say that “Bitcoin is more a kind of tradable and collectible asset such as stamps, rather than a payment currency,” implying that they are actively considering how to treat the digital currency. They did not however comment on the current bank account closures.
A group of investors has offered to buy bankrupt exchange Mt. Gox for a token payment of one bitcoin according to the Wall Street Journal. The group has outlined plans in their offer to revive the fallen exchange, by setting aside 50 per cent of its transaction fees to pay back burned customers and other creditors over time. However, the acquisition will first need to get approval from the Japanese bankruptcy court.
Popular digital platform Gyft is launching their new service Gyft Cloud, which they are calling “the ultimate mobile gift card solution.” Merchants will now be able to sell gift cards that customers can store on their mobile devices, and then refill anytime without credit card transaction fees. Gyft Cloud will not support bitcoin directly, but merchants will be able to use BitPay to sell cards in-store or on
SecondMarket CEO Barry Silbert announced a milestone on Twitter Thursday, posting that the Bitcoin Investment Trust he founded now holds over 100,000 bitcoins, worth approximately $40 million at the present exchange rate. This is good news for the Bitcoin Investment Trust, as it prepares to open its doors to more than its current, accredited clientele. This milestone for the company also demonstrates that investor interest in bitcoin is continuing to rise.
A group of industry members have come up with what they believe is a better bitcoin symbol than the current vector-based logo, with the help of Paris graphic design studio ECOGEX. The new symbol is already an existing Unicode character, which would make it easier to use in different fonts and formats. Several bitcoin companies have already adopted the new symbol, including ZeroBlock, Lamassu and Tip4Commit. However, many members of the community are still divided on which symbol they think is best.
We’re ending this week of Money & Tech exclusives with a special treat. We recently got to sit down with 9 year old bitcoin expert Sophie, to hear her perspective on digital currency and recent headlines. Watch that video here:
submitted by moneyandtech to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Ƀ symbol free graphic pack update

I updated the Ƀ Bitcoin Symbol graphic pack and it’s free and open source!
Download (285 Mo)
It contains a lot of graphic resources including:
Edit: Image gallery preview
Thanks to all redditors who contributed to this graphic pack! You can contribute to the next version here.
—> Learn more about this project
submitted by ecogex to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[Hiring] Designer to create bitcoin related vector images

Hi, I'm for a graphic designer to create symbols to be used on a website for the promotion of bitcoin. We are in the process of building our bitcoin information website. We have become dissatisfied with the quality of bitcoin stock vector images. If you are interested and have time available to create something within the next 2 weeks please pm me and show some prior work and we can start discussing where to go from there.
submitted by Rupert-H to Jobs4Bitcoins [link] [comments]

Stock prices and game controller movements should be public broadcast using reversed secure-hash as a realtime replacement for digital-signatures

Example: SHA512 on the output of SHA512 on its own output... n levels deep, or any secureHash function that is not known how to reverse compute at reasonable speed.
Each stock price or mouse X and Y position would be streamPositive minus streamNegative, and each of those streams would be the linkedlist length of publicly know hashes that (when hash of hash of hash...) lead to the name of something in the world, an arbitrary hash that is the result of many such hashes.
At each fraction of a second, everyone broadcasts a previous hash value of 1 of 2 streams which they have precomputed both of. This is proven to the public by it hashing to what was already publicly known.
If any sum of streamPositive plus streamNegative for any such number (which moves on a dimension on the integers) exceeds the current time, then "double spending" has been detected and that dimension (stock symbol or game controller dimension etc) is invalidated, at least in those who notice this and tell others about it.
The main benefit is its so small a data and fast to compute that we could in realtime agree on much higher dimensional vectors, positions of 1 dimensional movement of many things. For example, we could play rock paper scissors between 7 billion people at once.
I find it more interesting to explore a game of odd number of many players which each choose 1 of 2 things (up or down, or maybe left or right), and in each continuous moment, a round of the game, whichever thing gets the least people gambling on it (in pretend money or numbers) wins that round.
There is no way to fake predicting which of 2 things will be least popular if there is motivation to be the least popular, if game rules are defined that way to move score between the players. Its another kind of rock paper scissors.
I dont much like pointless gambling, but life is a gamble in its many forms and contexts, and theres many ways to make it more gameful to hook things together to influence eachother and allow people and computers to trust what others message them about, such as reverse hashes which they only know how to compute forward.
Imagine if I encoded a bitcoin private key with lots of money in the timing of when I publish the inverse SHA256 (what SHA256s to what is publicly known) and kept doing that with other privatekeys I own, then people would become interested in finding SHA256s anywhere on the Internet, in a steganography way or out in the open or anywhere between, so that stream of reverse hashes (as far as I precomputed it and gave the last to publics first seen and went backward) would become valuable as people interpret it, and other things could be written in it. It could become more reliable than tor for anyone to get a message out from anywhere without any internet addresses involved, even if written on paper slowly or in snail mail.
To summarize, reverse computing can be a replacement for digital signatures because precomputing privately allows the practical effect of reverse computing what public knows.
Using reverse secure hashes, someone could broadcast potentially as fast as realtime audio, every up and down tiny change in the audio amplitude, thousands of times per second, revealing these faster or slower depending on the shape of the wave at the time, and only those streaming at the time would be able to find such a record-like curve.
submitted by BenRayfield to security [link] [comments]

I need help regarding a trademark advice for my Bitcoin startup please

My Canadian startup has been in stealth and close to launch. I had a semi-abstract canadian maple leaf with bitcoin B inside it done for the logo. It's a nice looking logo and cost me a bit to have done properly (vector, etc). However I just noticed another logo doing similar. My question is does this matter if they did it first? I am thinking that 1) the maple leaf is a national symbol 2) the bitcoin B is open source. Does someone putting the B on a known and widely used symbol give them the right to that combination? Let's say someone put a B on the silhouette of an American Eagle, and some other American did the same with a slightly different looking Eagle. Could the first Eagle guy claim prior art and sue the second? Thanks for shedding any light on this!
submitted by canadabit to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[Hiring] Designer to create bitcoin related vector images

Hi, I'm for a graphic designer to create symbols to be used on a website for the promotion of bitcoin. We are in the process of building our bitcoin information website. We have become dissatisfied with the quality of bitcoin stock vector images. If you are interested and have time available to create something within the next 2 weeks please pm me and show some prior work and we can start discussing where to go from there. Thanks
submitted by Rupert-H to forhire [link] [comments]

4/11/14 - China, Mt. Gox buyout, Gyft Cloud, BIT & the new bitcoin symbol
Happy Friday with today's top news in Money & Tech:
As the situation in China continues to develop, the People’s Bank of China clarified in a statement that they have no intention of banning bitcoin. The statement went on to say that “Bitcoin is more a kind of tradable and collectible asset such as stamps, rather than a payment currency,” implying that they are actively considering how to treat the digital currency. They did not however comment on the current bank account closures.
A group of investors has offered to buy bankrupt exchange Mt. Gox for a token payment of one bitcoin according to the Wall Street Journal. The group has outlined plans in their offer to revive the fallen exchange, by setting aside 50 per cent of its transaction fees to pay back burned customers and other creditors over time. However, the acquisition will first need to get approval from the Japanese bankruptcy court.
Popular digital platform Gyft is launching their new service Gyft Cloud, which they are calling “the ultimate mobile gift card solution.” Merchants will now be able to sell gift cards that customers can store on their mobile devices, and then refill anytime without credit card transaction fees. Gyft Cloud will not support bitcoin directly, but merchants will be able to use BitPay to sell cards in-store or on
SecondMarket CEO Barry Silbert announced a milestone on Twitter Thursday, posting that the Bitcoin Investment Trust he founded now holds over 100,000 bitcoins, worth approximately $40 million at the present exchange rate. This is good news for the Bitcoin Investment Trust, as it prepares to open its doors to more than its current, accredited clientele. This milestone for the company also demonstrates that investor interest in bitcoin is continuing to rise.
A group of industry members have come up with what they believe is a better bitcoin symbol than the current vector-based logo, with the help of Paris graphic design studio ECOGEX. The new symbol is already an existing Unicode character, which would make it easier to use in different fonts and formats. Several bitcoin companies have already adopted the new symbol, including ZeroBlock, Lamassu and Tip4Commit. However, many members of the community are still divided on which symbol they think is best.
We’re ending this week of Money & Tech exclusives with a special treat. We recently got to sit down with 9 year old bitcoin expert Sophie, to hear her perspective on digital currency and recent headlines. Watch that video here:
submitted by moneyandtech to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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How to Draw Bitcoin Icon - Adobe Illustrator

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